Vikings Gucken News und Stories

Vikings jetzt legal online anschauen. Die Serie ist aktuell bei Amazon, Joyn, Netflix, Sky Ticket, Sky Go, iTunes, Microsoft, MagentaTV, maxdome verfügbar. ProSieben MAXX zeigt die Erfolgs-Serie "Vikings" Übersicht · Bilder · Galerie. Vikings. Ein fremder Gott / Ragnarök. Galerie anschauen. Rollen & Darsteller. Ecbert erkennt die Gunst der Stunde und bietet Ragnar und seinem Gefolge und macht ihm ein Friedensangebot. Galerie anschauen · Vikings. Der Knochenlose​. Amazon Prime Video zeigt exklusiv alle neuen Folgen von "Vikings". Auch bei anderen Streamingdiensten wie Netflix stehen die Folgen zum Abruf bereit. Jetzt Vikings Staffel 1 bis 5 online schauen. Vikings online ausleihen bei maxdome, Deutschlands größter Online-Videothek.

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ProSieben MAXX zeigt die Erfolgs-Serie "Vikings" Übersicht · Bilder · Galerie. Vikings. Ein fremder Gott / Ragnarök. Galerie anschauen. Rollen & Darsteller. Januar ist „Vikings“ Staffel 1 bis 5 endlich auch bei Netflix zu sehen. Dass der Streaming-Riese die Ausstrahlungsrechte der Serie erhalten. Vikings jetzt legal online anschauen. Die Serie ist aktuell bei Amazon, Joyn, Netflix, Sky Ticket, Sky Go, iTunes, Microsoft, MagentaTV, maxdome verfügbar.

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It is mandatory to procure user consent prior to running these cookies on your website. Norse Mythology , sagas, and literature tell of Scandinavian culture and religion through tales of heroic and mythological heroes.

Many of these sagas were written in Iceland, and most of them, even if they had no Icelandic provenance, were preserved there after the Middle Ages due to the continued interest of Icelanders in Norse literature and law codes.

The year Viking influence on European history is filled with tales of plunder and colonisation, and the majority of these chronicles came from western witnesses and their descendants.

Less common, though equally relevant, are the Viking chronicles that originated in the east, including the Nestor chronicles, Novgorod chronicles, Ibn Fadlan chronicles, Ibn Rusta chronicles, and brief mentions by Photius , patriarch of Constantinople, regarding their first attack on the Byzantine Empire.

Other chroniclers of Viking history include Adam of Bremen , who wrote, in the fourth volume of his Gesta Hammaburgensis Ecclesiae Pontificum , "[t]here is much gold here in Zealand , accumulated by piracy.

These pirates, which are called wichingi by their own people, and Ascomanni by our own people, pay tribute to the Danish king. Early modern publications, dealing with what is now called Viking culture, appeared in the 16th century, e.

Historia de gentibus septentrionalibus History of the northern people of Olaus Magnus , and the first edition of the 13th-century Gesta Danorum Deeds of the Danes , by Saxo Grammaticus , in The pace of publication increased during the 17th century with Latin translations of the Edda notably Peder Resen's Edda Islandorum of An important early British contributor to the study of the Vikings was George Hickes , who published his Linguarum vett.

During the 18th century, British interest and enthusiasm for Iceland and early Scandinavian culture grew dramatically, expressed in English translations of Old Norse texts and in original poems that extolled the supposed Viking virtues.

The word "viking" was first popularised at the beginning of the 19th century by Erik Gustaf Geijer in his poem, The Viking. Geijer's poem did much to propagate the new romanticised ideal of the Viking, which had little basis in historical fact.

The renewed interest of Romanticism in the Old North had contemporary political implications. The Geatish Society , of which Geijer was a member, popularised this myth to a great extent.

Fascination with the Vikings reached a peak during the so-called Viking revival in the late 18th and 19th centuries as a branch of Romantic nationalism.

In Britain this was called Septentrionalism, in Germany " Wagnerian " pathos, and in the Scandinavian countries Scandinavism.

Pioneering 19th-century scholarly editions of the Viking Age began to reach a small readership in Britain, archaeologists began to dig up Britain's Viking past, and linguistic enthusiasts started to identify the Viking-Age origins of rural idioms and proverbs.

The new dictionaries of the Old Norse language enabled the Victorians to grapple with the primary Icelandic sagas. Few scholars still accept these texts as reliable sources, as historians now rely more on archaeology and numismatics , disciplines that have made valuable contributions toward understanding the period.

The romanticised idea of the Vikings constructed in scholarly and popular circles in northwestern Europe in the 19th and early 20th centuries was a potent one, and the figure of the Viking became a familiar and malleable symbol in different contexts in the politics and political ideologies of 20th-century Europe.

In Germany, awareness of Viking history in the 19th century had been stimulated by the border dispute with Denmark over Schleswig-Holstein and the use of Scandinavian mythology by Richard Wagner.

The idealised view of the Vikings appealed to Germanic supremacists who transformed the figure of the Viking in accordance with the ideology of a Germanic master race.

The cultural phenomenon of Viking expansion was re-interpreted for use as propaganda to support the extreme militant nationalism of the Third Reich, and ideologically informed interpretations of Viking paganism and the Scandinavian use of runes were employed in the construction of Nazi mysticism.

Other political organisations of the same ilk, such as the former Norwegian fascist party Nasjonal Samling , similarly appropriated elements of the modern Viking cultural myth in their symbolism and propaganda.

Soviet and earlier Slavophile historians emphasized a Slavic rooted foundation in contrast to the Normanist theory of the Vikings conquering the Slavs and founding the Kievan Rus'.

They argued that Rus' composition was Slavic and that Rurik and Oleg' success was rooted in their support from within the local Slavic aristocracy.

These have included novels directly based on historical events, such as Frans Gunnar Bengtsson 's The Long Ships which was also released as a film , and historical fantasies such as the film The Vikings , Michael Crichton 's Eaters of the Dead movie version called The 13th Warrior , and the comedy film Erik the Viking.

Vikings appear in several books by the Danish American writer Poul Anderson , while British explorer, historian, and writer Tim Severin authored a trilogy of novels in about a young Viking adventurer Thorgils Leifsson, who travels around the world.

The character also appears in the film The Avengers and its associated animated series. The appearance of Vikings within popular media and television has seen a resurgence in recent decades, especially with the History Channel's series Vikings , directed by Michael Hirst.

However, the conclusions remain contentious. Vikings have served as an inspiration for numerous video games , such as The Lost Vikings , Age of Mythology , and For Honor Modern reconstructions of Viking mythology have shown a persistent influence in late 20th- and early 21st-century popular culture in some countries, inspiring comics, movies, television series, role-playing games, computer games, and music, including Viking metal , a subgenre of heavy metal music.

Since the s, there has been rising enthusiasm for historical reenactment. While the earliest groups had little claim for historical accuracy, the seriousness and accuracy of reenactors has increased.

Many reenactor groups participate in live-steel combat, and a few have Viking-style ships or boats.

Apart from two or three representations of ritual helmets—with protrusions that may be either stylised ravens, snakes, or horns—no depiction of the helmets of Viking warriors, and no preserved helmet, has horns.

The formal, close-quarters style of Viking combat either in shield walls or aboard "ship islands" would have made horned helmets cumbersome and hazardous to the warrior's own side.

Historians therefore believe that Viking warriors did not wear horned helmets; whether such helmets were used in Scandinavian culture for other, ritual purposes, remains unproven.

The general misconception that Viking warriors wore horned helmets was partly promulgated by the 19th-century enthusiasts of Götiska Förbundet , founded in in Stockholm.

The Vikings were often depicted with winged helmets and in other clothing taken from Classical antiquity , especially in depictions of Norse gods.

This was done to legitimise the Vikings and their mythology by associating it with the Classical world, which had long been idealised in European culture.

The latter-day mythos created by national romantic ideas blended the Viking Age with aspects of the Nordic Bronze Age some 2, years earlier.

Horned helmets from the Bronze Age were shown in petroglyphs and appeared in archaeological finds see Bohuslän and Vikso helmets.

They were probably used for ceremonial purposes. Cartoons like Hägar the Horrible and Vicky the Viking , and sports kits such as those of the Minnesota Vikings and Canberra Raiders have perpetuated the myth of the horned helmet.

Viking helmets were conical, made from hard leather with wood and metallic reinforcement for regular troops.

The iron helmet with mask and mail was for the chieftains, based on the previous Vendel -age helmets from central Sweden. The only original Viking helmet discovered is the Gjermundbu helmet , found in Norway.

This helmet is made of iron and has been dated to the 10th century. The image of wild-haired, dirty savages sometimes associated with the Vikings in popular culture is a distorted picture of reality.

There is no evidence that Vikings drank out of the skulls of vanquished enemies. This was a reference to drinking horns , but was mistranslated in the 17th century [] as referring to the skulls of the slain.

Studies of genetic diversity provide indication of the origin and expansion of the Norse population. Female descent studies show evidence of Norse descent in areas closest to Scandinavia, such as the Shetland and Orkney islands.

Recent research suggests that the Celtic warrior Somerled , who drove the Vikings out of western Scotland and was the progenitor of Clan Donald , may have been of Viking descent , a member of haplogroup R-M From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Norse explorers, warriors, merchants, and pirates. For other uses, see Viking disambiguation. Contemporary countries. Denmark Finland Iceland Norway Sweden.

Other topics. Main article: Viking Age. Main article: Viking expansion. Main article: Runestone.

The Lingsberg Runestone in Sweden. Runic inscriptions of the larger of the Jelling Stones in Denmark. Two types of Norse runestones from the Viking Age.

See also: Norse funeral and Ship burial. Burial mounds Gamla Uppsala. Examples of Viking burial mounds and stone set graves, collectively known as tumuli.

Main article: Viking ships. Prow of the Oseberg ship , at Oslo Museum. A reconstructed longship. Two typical viking ships. Main article: Viking Age arms and armour.

Viking swords. This section appears to contain trivial, minor, or unrelated references to popular culture. December Play media.

Main article: Horned helmet. Constructs such as ibid. Please improve this article by replacing them with named references quick guide , or an abbreviated title.

August Learn how and when to remove this template message. The Vikings. Cambridge University Press. The term 'Viking' This is the narrow, and technically the only correct use of the term 'Viking,' but in such expressions as 'Viking civilisation,' 'the Viking age,' 'the Viking movement,' 'Viking influence,' the word has come to have a wider significance and is used as a concise and convenient term for describing the whole of the civilisation, activity and influence of the Scandinavian peoples, at a particular period in their history, and to apply the term 'Viking' in its narrower sense to these movements would be as misleading as to write an account of the age of Elizabeth and label it 'The Buccaneers.

Historical Dictionary of the Vikings. Scarecrow Press. Viking is not merely another way of referring to a medieval Scandinavian.

Technically, the word has a more specific meaning, and it was used only infrequently by contemporaries of the Vikings to refer to those Scandinavians, usually men, who attacked their contemporaries Simpson, Jacqueline The Viking World.

Strictly speaking, therefore, the term Viking should only be applied to men actually engaged in these violent pursuits, and not to every contemporary Scandinavian Davies, Norman The Isles: A History.

Oxford University Press. The Viking appellation Encyclopaedia Britannica. The term "Viking" is applied today to Scandinavians who left their homes intent on raiding or conquest, and their descendants, during a period extending roughly from a.

Mawer, Allen In Bury, J. The Cambridge Medieval History. The term Viking The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology 2 ed.

Retrieved 3 January Scandinavian words used to describe the seafaring raiders from Norway, Sweden, and Denmark who ravaged the coasts of Europe from about ad onwards.

Crowcroft, Robert; Cannon, John , eds. The Oxford Companion to British History 2 ed. Viking is an Old Norse term, of disputed derivation, which only came into common usage in the 19th cent.

Concise Oxford English Dictionary. OUP Oxford. Vikings: Any of the Scandinavian seafaring pirates and traders who raided and settled in many parts of NW Europe in the 8th—11th centuries Random House Unabridged Dictionary Random House.

Collins Online Dictionary. The Vikings were people who sailed from Scandinavia and attacked villages in most parts of north-western Europe from the 8th to the 11th centuries Collins English Dictionary.

Webster's New World Dictionary, 4th Edition Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. Cambridge Dictionary. Archived from the original on 5 May Retrieved 30 September Viking, also called Norseman or Northman, member of the Scandinavian seafaring warriors who raided and colonized wide areas of Europe from the 9th to the 11th century and whose disruptive influence profoundly affected European history.

These pagan Danish, Norwegian, and Swedish warriors were Archived from the original on 30 September Lepel Regional Executive Committee.

Visby Sweden , n. Woodbridge: Boydell Press. Skeat , published in , defined Viking : better Wiking, Icel.

Viking-r, O. Skeat; Clarendon press; p. An etymological contribution" PDF. Arkiv för Nordisk Filologi. Archived from the original PDF on 14 July Retrieved 20 April Skeat: Principles of English Etymology Clarendon press, p.

Archived from the original on 14 March Retrieved 17 March A reply to Harald Bjorvand". Centre of Medieval Studies University of Bergen.

Archived from the original on 4 March Retrieved 13 January Boas 13 May Linguistics Research Center. The University of Texas at Austin.

Archived from the original on 22 December Archaeology in Europe. Archived from the original on 7 April Retrieved 23 April Retrieved 8 June — via www.

Saga-book of the Viking Society. University College London. Retrieved 15 April Ancient History Encyclopedia. Sweden History Tours.

The Varangians of Byzantium. Retrieved 2 February Accessed 25 July Nicolle, D, Turnbull, S Kalmback Publishing. Archived from the original on 30 April Retrieved 6 April Archived from the original on 14 May Retrieved 21 May Archived from the original PDF on 18 July Retrieved 11 May Bibcode : Wthr Spiegel Online.

Spiegel Online International. Archived from the original on 1 March Retrieved 27 February Aarhus University.

Retrieved 20 December Acta Archaeologica. Archived from the original on 30 May Retrieved 19 July Live Science. Archived from the original on 29 July Retrieved 21 July All That's Interesting.

Archived from the original on 22 July Retrieved 22 July Not According to Their Slaves". National Geographic News. Archived from the original on 2 August Retrieved 2 August Wyatt Slaves and Warriors in Medieval Britain and Ireland: — Archived from the original on 23 July The Telegraph.

Archived from the original on 1 August Retrieved 1 August The Vintage News. Scandinavian Studies. A historical essay".

Annals of Neurology. Evolution and Human Behavior. Science AAAS. Archived from the original on 27 July Crellin; Christian Horn; Marion Uckelmann Boyer history, myths, dictionary, Robert Laffont several , p.

A bibliography of French-language", Caen, Centre for research on the countries of the North and Northwest, University of Caen, , p.

Policy Review. Hoover Institution. Archived from the original on 16 December First Georgias Press. National Museum of Denmark.

Archived from the original on 18 March New York: Oxford University Press. London: Norton. James Graham-Campbell and Gareth Williams, pp.

Retrieved 8 June Archived from the original on 20 June Retrieved 15 March In the accusative: kriki Sö In Gerhard Stickel ed.

Peter Lang. Retrieved 6 March Department of Nordic Studies and Linguistics. University of Copenhagen.

Retrieved 27 January In many aspects, Elfdalian, takes up a middle position between East and West Nordic.

However, it shares some innovations with West Nordic, but none with East Nordic. Aftonbladet in Swedish. Retrieved 7 March Retrieved 16 May Diplomarbeit " [Elfdalian — Language or dialect?

Masters thesis ] PDF in German. University of Vienna. Medieval Scandinavia: An Encyclopedia Illustrated ed.

Medieval Archaeology. XLIX : — Archived from the original on 20 January Retrieved 22 February Archived from the original on 28 February CNN Travel.

Archived from the original on 9 July Retrieved 6 July University of Oslo. Archived from the original on 11 October Retrieved 23 June Libris American Journal of Physical Anthropology.

April Archived from the original on 2 May Oxbow Books , p. Archaeological Institute of America. Edited by, Eric Cambridge and Jane Hawkes.

Oxbow Books Gudjonsson : Folkekost og sundhedsforhold i gamle dage. Belyst igennem den oldnordiske Litteratur. Danish Journal of Archaeology.

Archived from the original PDF on 25 July Retrieved 19 June Ribe Vikingecenter in Danish. Archived from the original on 7 September Archived from the original on 28 April In southern Scandinavia ie.

Denmark , the heath sheep of Lüneburger Heidschnucke was raised and kept. Ribe Vikingecenter. Archived from the original on 19 April Retrieved 19 April Danish Agricultural Museum.

Jorvik Viking Centre. Medieval Scandinavia: An Encyclopedia. Garland Reference Library of the Humanities.

Archived from the original on 21 April Archived from the original on 14 July In Tamime, Adnan ed. Fermented Milks. Archived PDF from the original on 21 October The Jorvik Viking Centre.

Archived from the original on 20 April University of Southern Denmark. Archived PDF from the original on 24 September Archived from the original on 20 February Retrieved 1 March Retrieved 14 November Archived from the original on 30 March History Compass.

Archived from the original on 14 April Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports. Encyclopedia of the Ancient World. Archived from the original on 1 January Retrieved 17 October Boydell Press.

Maps of trade routes. Smithsonian Magazine. Smithsonian Institution. Archived from the original on 27 February Retrieved 24 February An inquiry into the glass beads of the Vikings.

Sourced information and pictures. Apollon — research magazine. Archived from the original on 27 May Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings.

Retrieved 28 February Center for Interdisciplinary Research on Social Stress. The Oxford Illustrated History of the Vikings.

Retrieved 17 October — via Internet Archive. Encyclopedia of Ukraine. Retrieved 7 September Boydell and Brewer , p.

Wordwell Ltd. University of Illinois Press. Retrieved 14 December Part 2". Archived from the original on 13 April Retrieved 17 September The Economist.

Retrieved 10 April Archived from the original on 15 February May Annals of Human Genetics. The American Journal of Human Genetics.

Bowden, Molecular Biology and Evolution, 20 November ". Molecular Biology and Evolution. Archived from the original PDF on 1 September Archived from the original on 5 June Retrieved 19 August Brink, Stefan In Brink, Stefan; Price, Neil eds.

Brookes, Ian Chambers concise dictionary. Allied Publishers. D'Amato, Raffaele The Varangian Guard — Osprey Publishing.

Derry, T. London and Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. Educational Company of Ireland 10 October Roberts Rinehart. Fitzhugh, William W.

Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press. Hall, Richard Andrew The World of the Vikings. Hall, Richard Viking Age Archaeology in Britain and Ireland.

In Helle, Knut ed. The Cambridge History of Scandinavia: Prehistory to Roesdahl, Else Penguin Books. Sawyer, Peter Hayes Age of the Vikings.

Archived from the https://undergroundsafari.se/serien-stream-app-android/lovely-complex-serien-stream.php on 27 February Encyclopaedia Britannica. Category Portal. We also use third-party cookies that help us analyze and understand how you use this website. Main article: Viking expansion. Scarecrow Press. The Oxford Companion to British History 2 ed. vikings gucken Lagertha Katheryn Winnick just click for source die erste Frau von Ragnar. Der Christ ist schockie Das Begräbnis. Ivar und seine Brüder Hvitserk und Ubbe verweilen hingegen in Kattegat. Angesiedelt ist die Serie link ausgehenden 8. Staffel 6. Such tactics may have been deployed intentionally by shock troopsand the berserk-state may have been induced through ingestion of materials with psychoactive properties, such as the hallucinogenic mushrooms, Amanita muscaria[] or large amounts of alcohol. Belyst igennem den oldnordiske Litteratur. Viking influence is also evident in concepts like the present-day parliamentary body of the Tynwald on the Vikings gucken of Man. Spiegel Online. Skiing and ice skating were the primary winter sports of the Vikings, although skiing was also the walking dead staffel 8 deutsch as everyday click at this page of transport in winter and in the colder regions of the north. Film sexy from the original on 22 December Vikings collected and ate fruits, berries and nuts. Alle Clips und Folgen von Vikings entdecken und auf Joyn anschauen. Vikings​. Historisches DramaAbenteuerAction. 5 StaffelnHD. Im 8. Jahrhundert lebt. Die irisch-kanadische TV-Serie Vikings erzählt die Abenteuer von Ragnar Lothbrok (Travis Fimmel), einem der größten Helden seiner Ära, der zum König der W. Januar ist „Vikings“ Staffel 1 bis 5 endlich auch bei Netflix zu sehen. Dass der Streaming-Riese die Ausstrahlungsrechte der Serie erhalten. Vikings verpasst? Alle Sendungen, Clips und Ganze Folgen kostenlos online anschauen. Vikings Sendung Verpasst. Er ist stumm wie ein Fisch und guckt auch so. Wieso hat dein Gottvater einen anderen Körper erschaffen, statt Konals Leiche am Waldrand wieder zum Leben​.

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These cookies do not store any personal information. Tree-ring analysis has shown the ship was built of oak in the vicinity of Dublin in about Seventy multi-national crew members sailed the ship back to its home, and Sea Stallion arrived outside Dublin's Custom House on 14 August The purpose of the voyage was to test and document the seaworthiness, speed, and manoeuvrability of the ship on the rough open sea and in coastal waters with treacherous currents.

The crew tested how the long, narrow, flexible hull withstood the tough ocean waves. The expedition also provided valuable new information on Viking longships and society.

The ship was built using Viking tools, materials, and much the same methods as the original ship. Other vessels, often replicas of the Gokstad ship full- or half-scale or Skuldelev have been built and tested as well.

Elements of a Scandinavian identity and practices were maintained in settler societies, but they could be quite distinct as the groups assimilated into the neighboring societies.

Assimilation to the Frankish culture in Normandy for example was rapid. Knowledge about the arms and armour of the Viking age is based on archaeological finds, pictorial representation, and to some extent on the accounts in the Norse sagas and Norse laws recorded in the 13th century.

According to custom, all free Norse men were required to own weapons and were permitted to carry them at all times.

These arms indicated a Viking's social status: a wealthy Viking had a complete ensemble of a helmet , shield , mail shirt, and sword.

However, swords were rarely used in battle, probably not sturdy enough for combat and most likely only used as symbolic or decorative items.

Bows were used in the opening stages of land battles and at sea, but they tended to be considered less "honourable" than melee weapons.

Vikings were relatively unusual for the time in their use of axes as a main battle weapon. The warfare and violence of the Vikings were often motivated and fuelled by their beliefs in Norse religion , focusing on Thor and Odin , the gods of war and death.

Such tactics may have been deployed intentionally by shock troops , and the berserk-state may have been induced through ingestion of materials with psychoactive properties, such as the hallucinogenic mushrooms, Amanita muscaria , [] or large amounts of alcohol.

The Vikings established and engaged in extensive trading networks throughout the known world and had a profound influence on the economic development of Europe and Scandinavia.

Except for the major trading centres of Ribe , Hedeby and the like, the Viking world was unfamiliar with the use of coinage and was based on so called bullion economy, that is, the weight of precious metals.

Silver was the most common metal in the economy, although gold was also used to some extent. Silver circulated in the form of bars, or ingots , as well as in the form of jewellery and ornaments.

A large number of silver hoards from the Viking Age have been uncovered, both in Scandinavia and the lands they settled.

Organized trade covered everything from ordinary items in bulk to exotic luxury products. The Viking ship designs, like that of the knarr , were an important factor in their success as merchants.

To counter these valuable imports, the Vikings exported a large variety of goods. These goods included: [].

Other exports included weapons, walrus ivory , wax , salt and cod. As one of the more exotic exports, hunting birds were sometimes provided from Norway to the European aristocracy, from the 10th century.

Many of these goods were also traded within the Viking world itself, as well as goods such as soapstone and whetstone. Soapstone was traded with the Norse on Iceland and in Jutland , who used it for pottery.

Whetstones were traded and used for sharpening weapons, tools and knives. This trade satisfied the Vikings' need for leather and meat to some extent, and perhaps hides for parchment production on the European mainland.

Wool was also very important as a domestic product for the Vikings, to produce warm clothing for the cold Scandinavian and Nordic climate, and for sails.

Sails for Viking ships required large amounts of wool, as evidenced by experimental archaeology.

There are archaeological signs of organised textile productions in Scandinavia, reaching as far back as the early Iron Ages.

Artisans and craftsmen in the larger towns were supplied with antlers from organised hunting with large-scale reindeer traps in the far north.

They were used as raw material for making everyday utensils like combs. In England the Viking Age began dramatically on 8 June when Norsemen destroyed the abbey on the island of Lindisfarne.

The devastation of Northumbria 's Holy Island shocked and alerted the royal courts of Europe to the Viking presence.

Not until the s did scholars outside Scandinavia begin to seriously reassess the achievements of the Vikings, recognizing their artistry, technological skills, and seamanship.

Norse Mythology , sagas, and literature tell of Scandinavian culture and religion through tales of heroic and mythological heroes.

Many of these sagas were written in Iceland, and most of them, even if they had no Icelandic provenance, were preserved there after the Middle Ages due to the continued interest of Icelanders in Norse literature and law codes.

The year Viking influence on European history is filled with tales of plunder and colonisation, and the majority of these chronicles came from western witnesses and their descendants.

Less common, though equally relevant, are the Viking chronicles that originated in the east, including the Nestor chronicles, Novgorod chronicles, Ibn Fadlan chronicles, Ibn Rusta chronicles, and brief mentions by Photius , patriarch of Constantinople, regarding their first attack on the Byzantine Empire.

Other chroniclers of Viking history include Adam of Bremen , who wrote, in the fourth volume of his Gesta Hammaburgensis Ecclesiae Pontificum , "[t]here is much gold here in Zealand , accumulated by piracy.

These pirates, which are called wichingi by their own people, and Ascomanni by our own people, pay tribute to the Danish king.

Early modern publications, dealing with what is now called Viking culture, appeared in the 16th century, e. Historia de gentibus septentrionalibus History of the northern people of Olaus Magnus , and the first edition of the 13th-century Gesta Danorum Deeds of the Danes , by Saxo Grammaticus , in The pace of publication increased during the 17th century with Latin translations of the Edda notably Peder Resen's Edda Islandorum of An important early British contributor to the study of the Vikings was George Hickes , who published his Linguarum vett.

During the 18th century, British interest and enthusiasm for Iceland and early Scandinavian culture grew dramatically, expressed in English translations of Old Norse texts and in original poems that extolled the supposed Viking virtues.

The word "viking" was first popularised at the beginning of the 19th century by Erik Gustaf Geijer in his poem, The Viking.

Geijer's poem did much to propagate the new romanticised ideal of the Viking, which had little basis in historical fact.

The renewed interest of Romanticism in the Old North had contemporary political implications. The Geatish Society , of which Geijer was a member, popularised this myth to a great extent.

Fascination with the Vikings reached a peak during the so-called Viking revival in the late 18th and 19th centuries as a branch of Romantic nationalism.

In Britain this was called Septentrionalism, in Germany " Wagnerian " pathos, and in the Scandinavian countries Scandinavism.

Pioneering 19th-century scholarly editions of the Viking Age began to reach a small readership in Britain, archaeologists began to dig up Britain's Viking past, and linguistic enthusiasts started to identify the Viking-Age origins of rural idioms and proverbs.

The new dictionaries of the Old Norse language enabled the Victorians to grapple with the primary Icelandic sagas.

Few scholars still accept these texts as reliable sources, as historians now rely more on archaeology and numismatics , disciplines that have made valuable contributions toward understanding the period.

The romanticised idea of the Vikings constructed in scholarly and popular circles in northwestern Europe in the 19th and early 20th centuries was a potent one, and the figure of the Viking became a familiar and malleable symbol in different contexts in the politics and political ideologies of 20th-century Europe.

In Germany, awareness of Viking history in the 19th century had been stimulated by the border dispute with Denmark over Schleswig-Holstein and the use of Scandinavian mythology by Richard Wagner.

The idealised view of the Vikings appealed to Germanic supremacists who transformed the figure of the Viking in accordance with the ideology of a Germanic master race.

The cultural phenomenon of Viking expansion was re-interpreted for use as propaganda to support the extreme militant nationalism of the Third Reich, and ideologically informed interpretations of Viking paganism and the Scandinavian use of runes were employed in the construction of Nazi mysticism.

Other political organisations of the same ilk, such as the former Norwegian fascist party Nasjonal Samling , similarly appropriated elements of the modern Viking cultural myth in their symbolism and propaganda.

Soviet and earlier Slavophile historians emphasized a Slavic rooted foundation in contrast to the Normanist theory of the Vikings conquering the Slavs and founding the Kievan Rus'.

They argued that Rus' composition was Slavic and that Rurik and Oleg' success was rooted in their support from within the local Slavic aristocracy.

These have included novels directly based on historical events, such as Frans Gunnar Bengtsson 's The Long Ships which was also released as a film , and historical fantasies such as the film The Vikings , Michael Crichton 's Eaters of the Dead movie version called The 13th Warrior , and the comedy film Erik the Viking.

Vikings appear in several books by the Danish American writer Poul Anderson , while British explorer, historian, and writer Tim Severin authored a trilogy of novels in about a young Viking adventurer Thorgils Leifsson, who travels around the world.

The character also appears in the film The Avengers and its associated animated series. The appearance of Vikings within popular media and television has seen a resurgence in recent decades, especially with the History Channel's series Vikings , directed by Michael Hirst.

However, the conclusions remain contentious. Vikings have served as an inspiration for numerous video games , such as The Lost Vikings , Age of Mythology , and For Honor Modern reconstructions of Viking mythology have shown a persistent influence in late 20th- and early 21st-century popular culture in some countries, inspiring comics, movies, television series, role-playing games, computer games, and music, including Viking metal , a subgenre of heavy metal music.

Since the s, there has been rising enthusiasm for historical reenactment. While the earliest groups had little claim for historical accuracy, the seriousness and accuracy of reenactors has increased.

Many reenactor groups participate in live-steel combat, and a few have Viking-style ships or boats. Apart from two or three representations of ritual helmets—with protrusions that may be either stylised ravens, snakes, or horns—no depiction of the helmets of Viking warriors, and no preserved helmet, has horns.

The formal, close-quarters style of Viking combat either in shield walls or aboard "ship islands" would have made horned helmets cumbersome and hazardous to the warrior's own side.

Historians therefore believe that Viking warriors did not wear horned helmets; whether such helmets were used in Scandinavian culture for other, ritual purposes, remains unproven.

The general misconception that Viking warriors wore horned helmets was partly promulgated by the 19th-century enthusiasts of Götiska Förbundet , founded in in Stockholm.

The Vikings were often depicted with winged helmets and in other clothing taken from Classical antiquity , especially in depictions of Norse gods.

This was done to legitimise the Vikings and their mythology by associating it with the Classical world, which had long been idealised in European culture.

The latter-day mythos created by national romantic ideas blended the Viking Age with aspects of the Nordic Bronze Age some 2, years earlier.

Horned helmets from the Bronze Age were shown in petroglyphs and appeared in archaeological finds see Bohuslän and Vikso helmets.

They were probably used for ceremonial purposes. Cartoons like Hägar the Horrible and Vicky the Viking , and sports kits such as those of the Minnesota Vikings and Canberra Raiders have perpetuated the myth of the horned helmet.

Viking helmets were conical, made from hard leather with wood and metallic reinforcement for regular troops.

The iron helmet with mask and mail was for the chieftains, based on the previous Vendel -age helmets from central Sweden. The only original Viking helmet discovered is the Gjermundbu helmet , found in Norway.

This helmet is made of iron and has been dated to the 10th century. The image of wild-haired, dirty savages sometimes associated with the Vikings in popular culture is a distorted picture of reality.

There is no evidence that Vikings drank out of the skulls of vanquished enemies. This was a reference to drinking horns , but was mistranslated in the 17th century [] as referring to the skulls of the slain.

Studies of genetic diversity provide indication of the origin and expansion of the Norse population. Female descent studies show evidence of Norse descent in areas closest to Scandinavia, such as the Shetland and Orkney islands.

Recent research suggests that the Celtic warrior Somerled , who drove the Vikings out of western Scotland and was the progenitor of Clan Donald , may have been of Viking descent , a member of haplogroup R-M From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Norse explorers, warriors, merchants, and pirates. For other uses, see Viking disambiguation. Contemporary countries. Denmark Finland Iceland Norway Sweden.

Other topics. Main article: Viking Age. Main article: Viking expansion. Main article: Runestone. The Lingsberg Runestone in Sweden. Runic inscriptions of the larger of the Jelling Stones in Denmark.

Two types of Norse runestones from the Viking Age. See also: Norse funeral and Ship burial. Burial mounds Gamla Uppsala.

Examples of Viking burial mounds and stone set graves, collectively known as tumuli. Main article: Viking ships.

Prow of the Oseberg ship , at Oslo Museum. A reconstructed longship. Two typical viking ships. Main article: Viking Age arms and armour.

Viking swords. This section appears to contain trivial, minor, or unrelated references to popular culture. December Play media. Main article: Horned helmet.

Constructs such as ibid. Please improve this article by replacing them with named references quick guide , or an abbreviated title.

August Learn how and when to remove this template message. The Vikings. Cambridge University Press. The term 'Viking' This is the narrow, and technically the only correct use of the term 'Viking,' but in such expressions as 'Viking civilisation,' 'the Viking age,' 'the Viking movement,' 'Viking influence,' the word has come to have a wider significance and is used as a concise and convenient term for describing the whole of the civilisation, activity and influence of the Scandinavian peoples, at a particular period in their history, and to apply the term 'Viking' in its narrower sense to these movements would be as misleading as to write an account of the age of Elizabeth and label it 'The Buccaneers.

Historical Dictionary of the Vikings. Scarecrow Press. Viking is not merely another way of referring to a medieval Scandinavian.

Technically, the word has a more specific meaning, and it was used only infrequently by contemporaries of the Vikings to refer to those Scandinavians, usually men, who attacked their contemporaries Simpson, Jacqueline The Viking World.

Strictly speaking, therefore, the term Viking should only be applied to men actually engaged in these violent pursuits, and not to every contemporary Scandinavian Davies, Norman The Isles: A History.

Oxford University Press. The Viking appellation Encyclopaedia Britannica. The term "Viking" is applied today to Scandinavians who left their homes intent on raiding or conquest, and their descendants, during a period extending roughly from a.

Mawer, Allen In Bury, J. The Cambridge Medieval History. The term Viking The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology 2 ed. Retrieved 3 January Scandinavian words used to describe the seafaring raiders from Norway, Sweden, and Denmark who ravaged the coasts of Europe from about ad onwards.

Crowcroft, Robert; Cannon, John , eds. The Oxford Companion to British History 2 ed. Viking is an Old Norse term, of disputed derivation, which only came into common usage in the 19th cent.

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