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Der Ausdruck Goldene Zwanziger bzw. Goldene Zwanziger Jahre bezeichnet für Deutschland etwa den Zeitabschnitt zwischen und Der Begriff veranschaulicht den Wirtschaftsaufschwung in den er Jahren in vielen Industrieländern und steht. Zur gleichnamigen ehemaligen US-amerikanischen Automarke siehe Roaring Twenties Motor Car Company. Die „Goldenen Zwanziger“: Tanztee mit Jazzband,. von 69 Ergebnissen oder Vorschlägen für Spielzeug: Verkleiden & Kostüme: "Golden twenties". Überspringen und zu Haupt-Suchergebnisse gehen. - Erkunde Martina Frieses Pinnwand „Golden twenties“ auf Pinterest. How to dress in a flapper costume starting with a 20s flapper dress and. - Erkunde smiltings Pinnwand „Golden Twenties Party“ auf Pinterest. Weitere Ideen zu 20er jahre mode, 20er mode, er stil.
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The German government offered tax breaks, low-interest loans and land grants to provide suitable housing for those in need.
By , homelessness in Germany had been reduced by more than 60 percent. However, middle class Germans experienced little economic relief as they didn't qualify for benefits, and unemployment rates remained high for bankers, businessmen and bureaucrats that led to resentment of the government.
Artistic movements flourished in the s as artists reacted to the horrors of WWI. Expressionism, a movement that focused on subjective experience and emotion, began in Germany prior to the war and remained popular during the Weimar Republic, influencing painting, theater, architecture and literature.
The movement overlapped with and spawned others including Dadaism, with the "First International Dada Fair" held in in Berlin, presenting work that focused on the absurd.
Artists such as George Grosz and Otto Dix used drawings, paintings and caricatures to poke fun at the German military and satirize the upper class.
Bauhaus architecture also grew out of this period, with the design of post-industrial spaces that favored metallic materials and minimalism.
The dramatic economic recovery after World War I brought cultural revival to the war-torn country. The zeitgeist of the s was one of prosperity, independence, casual living, sexual exploration and free expression.
Berliners no longer feared bombings and military raids and could focus on culture, dance, fashion and recreation. Nightlife in Berlin boomed during the Golden '20s and gave people a reason to celebrate their individuality, freedom and creativity.
Nightclubs, theaters and pubs were hot spots for entertainment and relaxation. Unfortunately, the Golden '20s were cut short when the United States stock market crashed in , spiraling the U.
The s were perceived as an age of liberation for women in Europe and Germany, but many experienced hardships associated with their new freedoms.
Women were allowed to attend academic institutions and some assumed clerical positions in white-collar industries.
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Four other silent features, all low-budget Westerns , were also released in early The s saw milestones in aviation that seized the world's attention.
In , Charles Lindbergh rose to fame with the first solo nonstop transatlantic flight. It took Lindbergh Louis , was a custom-built, single engine, single-seat monoplane.
It was designed by aeronautical engineer Donald A. Flying solo or with her husband, Jim Mollison, she set numerous long-distance records during the s.
The s saw several inventors advance work on television, but programs did not reach the public until the eve of World War II, and few people saw any television before the lates.
In July , John Logie Baird demonstrated the world's first color transmission, using scanning discs at the transmitting and receiving ends with three spirals of apertures, each spiral with a filter of a different primary color; and three light sources at the receiving end, with a commutator to alternate their illumination.
For decades biologists had been at work on the medicine that became penicillin. In , Scottish biologist Alexander Fleming discovered a substance that killed a number of disease-causing bacteria.
In , he named the new substance penicillin. His publications were largely ignored at first, but it became a significant antibiotic in the s.
In , Cecil George Paine, a pathologist at Sheffield Royal Infirmary , used penicillin to treat sycosis barbae , eruptions in beard follicles, but was unsuccessful.
Moving to ophthalmia neonatorum , a gonococcal infection in infants, he achieved the first recorded cure with penicillin, on November 25, He then cured four additional patients one adult and three infants of eye infections, but failed to cure a fifth.
The automobile's dominance led to a new psychology celebrating mobility. Farmers were early adopters as they used their pickups to haul people, supplies and animals.
New industries were spun off—to make tires and glass and refine fuel, and to service and repair cars and trucks by the millions.
New car dealers were franchised by the car makers and became prime movers in the local business community. Tourism gained an enormous boost, with hotels, restaurants and curio shops proliferating.
Electrification , having slowed during the war, progressed greatly as more of the US and Canada was added to the electrical grid.
Industries switched from coal power to electricity. At the same time, new power plants were constructed. In America, electricity production almost quadrupled.
Telephone lines also were being strung across the continent. Indoor plumbing and modern sewer systems were installed for the first time in many houses.
Urbanization reached a milestone in the census, that showed slightly more Americans lived in urban areas towns and cities of 2, or more people than in small towns or rural areas.
The basic pattern of the modern white-collar job was set during the lateth century, but it now became the norm for life in large and medium cities.
Typewriters, filing cabinets, and telephones brought unmarried women into clerical jobs. In Canada, by the end of the decade one in five workers was a woman.
Interest in finding jobs in the now ever-growing manufacturing sector in U. With some exceptions,  many countries expanded women's voting rights in representative and direct democracies across the world such as the United States, Canada, Great Britain and most major European countries in —, as well as India.
This influenced many governments and elections by increasing the number of voters. Politicians responded by focusing more on issues of concern to women, especially peace, public health, education, and the status of children.
On the whole, women voted much like men, except they were more interested in peace. The Lost Generation was composed of young people who came out of World War I disillusioned and cynical about the world.
The term usually refers to American literary notables who lived in Paris at the time. Famous members included Ernest Hemingway , F.
Scott Fitzgerald , and Gertrude Stein. These authors, some of them expatriates , wrote novels and short stories expressing their resentment towards the materialism and individualism rampant during this era.
In the United Kingdom, the bright young things were young aristocrats and socialites who threw fancy dress parties, went on elaborate treasure hunts, were seen in all the trendy venues, and were well covered by the gossip columns of the London tabloids.
As the average American in the s became more enamored of wealth and everyday luxuries, some began satirizing the hypocrisy and greed they observed.
Of these social critics, Sinclair Lewis was the most popular. His popular novel Main Street satirized the dull and ignorant lives of the residents of a Midwestern town.
He followed with Babbitt , about a middle-aged businessman who rebels against his dull life and family, only to realize that the younger generation is as hypocritical as his own.
Lewis satirized religion with Elmer Gantry , which followed a con man who teams with an evangelist to sell religion to a small town.
Anderson published a collection of short stories titled Winesburg, Ohio , which studied the dynamics of a small town. Wharton mocked the fads of the new era through her novels, such as Twilight Sleep Mencken criticized narrow American tastes and culture in essays and articles.
Art Deco was the style of design and architecture that marked the era. Originating in Europe, it spread to the rest of western Europe and North America towards the mids.
In the U. The forms of art deco were pure and geometric, though the artists often drew inspiration from nature. In the beginning, lines were curved, though rectilinear designs would later become more and more popular.
Painting in North America during the s developed in a different direction from that of Europe. In Europe, the s were the era of expressionism and later surrealism.
At the beginning of the decade, films were silent and colorless. In , the first all-color feature, The Toll of the Sea , was released.
In , Warner Bros. In , Warner released The Jazz Singer , the first sound feature to include limited talking sequences. The public went wild for sound films, and movie studios converted to sound almost overnight.
In the same year, the first sound cartoon, Dinner Time , was released. Warner ended the decade by unveiling On with the Show in , the first all-color, all-talking feature film.
Cartoon shorts were popular in movie theaters during this time. In the late s, Walt Disney emerged. Mickey was featured in more than cartoon shorts, the Mickey Mouse Club , and other specials.
This started Disney and led to creation of other characters going into the s. Disney lost the rights to the character, but in , regained the rights to Oswald.
He was the first Disney character to be merchandised. African-American literary and artistic culture developed rapidly during the s under the banner of the " Harlem Renaissance ".
In , the Black Swan Corporation was founded. At its height, it issued 10 recordings per month.
All-African American musicals also started in During the lates, and especially in the s, the basketball team became known as the best in the world.
The first issue of Opportunity was published. The s brought new styles of music into the mainstream of culture in avant-garde cities. Jazz became the most popular form of music for youth.
Ogren wrote that, by the s, jazz had become the "dominant influence on America's popular music generally"  Scott DeVeaux argues that a standard history of jazz has emerged such that: "After an obligatory nod to African origins and ragtime antecedents, the music is shown to move through a succession of styles or periods: New Orleans jazz up through the s, swing in the s, bebop in the s, cool jazz and hard bop in the s, free jazz and fusion in the s There is substantial agreement on the defining features of each style, the pantheon of great innovators, and the canon of recorded masterpieces.
The development of urban and city blues also began in the s with performers such as Bessie Smith and Ma Rainey. Dance clubs became enormously popular in the s.
Their popularity peaked in the late s and reached into the early s. Dance music came to dominate all forms of popular music by the late s.
Classical pieces, operettas, folk music, etc. For example, many of the songs from the Technicolor musical operetta " The Rogue Song " starring the Metropolitan Opera star Lawrence Tibbett were rearranged and released as dancing music and became popular dance club hits in Dance clubs across the U.
Professionals began to hone their skills in tap dance and other dances of the era throughout the stage circuit across the United States.
With the advent of talking pictures sound film , musicals became all the rage and film studios flooded the box office with extravagant and lavish musical films.
The representative was the musical Gold Diggers of Broadway , which became the highest-grossing film of the decade. Harlem played a key role in the development of dance styles.
Several entertainment venues attracted people of all races. The Cotton Club featured black performers and catered to a white clientele, while the Savoy Ballroom catered to a mostly black clientele.
Some religious moralists preached against "Satan in the dance hall" but had little impact. The most popular dances throughout the decade were the foxtrot , waltz , and American tango.
From the early s, however, a variety of eccentric novelty dances were developed. The first of these were the Breakaway and Charleston.
Both were based on African American musical styles and beats, including the widely popular blues. The Charleston's popularity exploded after its feature in two Broadway shows.
A brief Black Bottom craze, originating from the Apollo Theater , swept dance halls from to , replacing the Charleston in popularity.
Developed in the Savoy Ballroom, it was set to stride piano ragtime jazz. The Lindy Hop later evolved into other Swing dances.
The dance craze had a large influence on popular music. Large numbers of recordings labeled as foxtrot, tango, and waltz were produced and gave rise to a generation of performers who became famous as recording artists or radio artists.
Paris set the fashion trends for Europe and North America. Women wore dresses all day, everyday. Day dresses had a drop waist, which was a sash or belt around the low waist or hip and a skirt that hung anywhere from the ankle on up to the knee, never above.
Daywear had sleeves long to mid-bicep and a skirt that was straight, pleaded, hank hem, or tired. Jewelry was less conspicuous.
For men in white collar jobs, business suits were the day to day attire. Striped, plaid, or windowpane suits came in dark gray, blue, and brown in the winter and ivory, white, tan, and pastels in the summer.
Shirts were white and neckties were essential. Immortalized in movies and magazine covers, young women's fashions of the s set both a trend and social statement, a breaking-off from the rigid Victorian way of life.
These young, rebellious, middle-class women, labeled 'flappers' by older generations, did away with the corset and donned slinky knee-length dresses, which exposed their legs and arms.
The hairstyle of the decade was a chin-length bob, which had several popular variations. Cosmetics, which until the s were not typically accepted in American society because of their association with prostitution , became extremely popular.
In the s, new magazines appealed to young German women with a sensuous image and advertisements for the appropriate clothes and accessories they would want to purchase.
She was young and fashionable, financially independent, and was an eager consumer of the latest fashions. The magazines kept her up to date on styles, clothes, designers, arts, sports, and modern technology such as automobiles and telephones.
The s was a period of social revolution, coming out of World War I, society changed as inhibitions faded and youth demanded new experiences and more freedom from old controls.
Chaperones faded in importance as "anything goes" became a slogan for youth taking control of their subculture.
This new woman cut her hair, wore make-up, and partied. She was known for being giddy and taking risks. New careers opened for single women in offices and schools, with salaries that helped them to be more independent.
The new dress code emphasized youth: Corsets were left behind and clothing was looser, with more natural lines. The hourglass figure was not popular anymore, whereas a slimmer, boyish body type was considered appealing.
The flappers were known for this and for their high spirits, flirtation, and recklessness when it came to the search for fun and thrills.
Coco Chanel was one of the more enigmatic fashion figures of the s. She was recognized for her avant-garde designs; her clothing was a mixture of wearable, comfortable, and elegant.
She was the one to introduce a different aesthetic into fashion, especially a different sense for what was feminine, and based her design on new ethics; she designed for an active woman, one that could feel at ease in her dress.
She was the pioneer for women wearing pants and for the little black dress , which were signs of a more independent lifestyle.
Most British historians depict the s as an era of domesticity for women with little feminist progress, apart from full suffrage which came in What new kinds of social and personal opportunity, for example, were offered by the changing cultures of sport and entertainment With the passage of the 19th Amendment in , that gave women the right to vote , American feminists attained the political equality they had been waiting for.
A generational gap began to form between the "new" women of the s and the previous generation. Prior to the 19th Amendment, feminists commonly thought women could not pursue both a career and a family successfully, believing one would inherently inhibit the development of the other.
This mentality began to change in the s, as more women began to desire not only successful careers of their own, but also families.
Linda Eisenmann claims, "New collegiate opportunities for women profoundly redefined womanhood by challenging the Victorian belief that men's and women's social roles were rooted in biology.
Advertising agencies exploited the new status of women, for example in publishing automobile ads in women's magazines, at a time when the vast majority of purchasers and drivers were men.
The new ads promoted new freedoms for affluent women while also suggesting the outer limits of the new freedoms. Automobiles were more than practical devices.
They were also highly visible symbols of affluence, mobility, and modernity. The ads, wrote Einav Rabinovitch-Fox, "offered women a visual vocabulary to imagine their new social and political roles as citizens and to play an active role in shaping their identity as modern women".
Significant changes in the lives of working women occurred in the s. World War I had temporarily allowed women to enter into industries such as chemical, automobile, and iron and steel manufacturing, which were once deemed inappropriate work for women.
Yet, like other women during World War I, their success was only temporary; most black women were also pushed out of their factory jobs after the war.
Legislation passed at the beginning of the 20th century mandated a minimum wage and forced many factories to shorten their workdays.
This shifted the focus in the s to job performance to meet demand. Factories encouraged workers to produce more quickly and efficiently with speedups and bonus systems, increasing the pressure on factory workers.
Despite the strain on women in the factories, the booming economy of the s meant more opportunities even for the lower classes.
Many young girls from working-class backgrounds did not need to help support their families as prior generations did and were often encouraged to seek work or receive vocational training which would result in social mobility.
The achievement of suffrage led to feminists refocusing their efforts towards other goals. Groups such as the National Women's Party continued the political fight, proposing the Equal Rights Amendment in and working to remove laws that used sex to discriminate against women,  but many women shifted their focus from politics to challenge traditional definitions of womanhood.
Young women, especially, began staking claim to their own bodies and took part in a sexual liberation of their generation.
Many of the ideas that fueled this change in sexual thought were already floating around New York intellectual circles prior to World War I, with the writings of Sigmund Freud , Havelock Ellis and Ellen Key.
There, thinkers claimed that sex was not only central to the human experience, but also that women were sexual beings with human impulses and desires, and restraining these impulses was self-destructive.
By the s, these ideas had permeated the mainstream. In the s, the co-ed emerged, as women began attending large state colleges and universities.
Women entered into the mainstream middle class experience but took on a gendered role within society.
In an increasingly conservative postwar era, a young woman commonly would attend college with the intention of finding a suitable husband.
Fueled by ideas of sexual liberation, dating underwent major changes on college campuses. With the advent of the automobile, courtship occurred in a much more private setting.
Despite women's increased knowledge of pleasure and sex, the decade of unfettered capitalism that was the s gave birth to the "feminine mystique".
With this formulation, all women wanted to marry, all good women stayed at home with their children, cooking and cleaning, and the best women did the aforementioned and in addition, exercised their purchasing power freely and as frequently as possible to better their families and their homes.
The Allied victory in the First World War seems to mark the triumph of liberalism , not just in the Allied countries themselves, but also in Germany and in the new states of Eastern Europe, as well as Japan.
Authoritarian militarism as typified by Germany had been defeated and discredited. Historian Martin Blinkhorn argues that the liberal themes were ascendant in terms of "cultural pluralism, religious and ethnic toleration, national self-determination, free-market economics, representative and responsible government, free trade, unionism, and the peaceful settlement of international disputes through a new body, the League of Nations".
Communist revolts were beaten back everywhere else, but they did succeed in Russia. Homosexuality became much more visible and somewhat more acceptable.
The many gay rights groups in Weimar Germany favored a militarised rhetoric with a vision of a spiritually and politically emancipated hypermasculine gay man who fought to legitimize "friendship" and secure civil rights.
On the left, the Wissenschaftlich-humanitäres Komitee Scientific-Humanitarian Committee ; WhK reasserted the traditional view that homosexuals were an effeminate "third sex" whose sexual ambiguity and nonconformity was biologically determined.
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Ich stimme zu. Add To Cart. Home Watches Watch Straps. Edition: Mesh. These were much like the productions of the Moulin Rouge in Paris, France, during this time.
Anita Berber  was a famous, even infamous, cabaret dancer during this so-called borrow time.
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