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Cuisine Actuelle. L'astuce infaillible Femme Actuelle. After the surrender of Metz , more than , well-trained and experienced German troops joined the German 'Southern Army'.

Quentin 13 January. Despite access to the armaments factories of Lille , the Army of the North suffered from severe supply difficulties, which depressed morale.

In January , Gambetta forced Faidherbe to march his army beyond the fortresses and engage the Prussians in open battle. The army was severely weakened by low morale, supply problems, the terrible winter weather and low troop quality, whilst general Faidherbe was unable to command due to his poor health, the result of decades of campaigning in West Africa.

At the Battle of St. Quentin, the Army of the North suffered a crushing defeat and was scattered, releasing thousands of Prussian soldiers to be relocated to the East.

Following the destruction of the French Army of the Loire, remnants of the Loire army gathered in eastern France to form the Army of the East, commanded by general Charles-Denis Bourbaki.

In a final attempt to cut the German supply lines in northeast France, Bourbaki's army marched north to attack the Prussian siege of Belfort and relieve the defenders.

In the battle of the Lisaine , Bourbaki's men failed to break through German lines commanded by General August von Werder.

Facing annihilation, the last intact French army crossed the border and was disarmed and interned by the neutral Swiss near Pontarlier 1 February.

With Paris starving, and Gambetta's provincial armies reeling from one disaster after another, French foreign minister Favre went to Versailles on 24 January to discuss peace terms with Bismarck.

Bismarck agreed to end the siege and allow food convoys to immediately enter Paris including trains carrying millions of German army rations , on condition that the Government of National Defence surrender several key fortresses outside Paris to the Prussians.

Without the forts, the French Army would no longer be able to defend Paris. Although public opinion in Paris was strongly against any form of surrender or concession to the Prussians, the Government realised that it could not hold the city for much longer, and that Gambetta's provincial armies would probably never break through to relieve Paris.

President Trochu resigned on 25 January and was replaced by Favre, who signed the surrender two days later at Versailles, with the armistice coming into effect at midnight.

Several sources claim that in his carriage on the way back to Paris, Favre broke into tears, and collapsed into his daughter's arms as the guns around Paris fell silent at midnight.

Furious, he refused to surrender. Jules Simon , a member of the Government arrived from Paris by train on 1 February to negotiate with Gambetta.

Another group of three ministers arrived in Bordeaux on 5 February and the following day Gambetta stepped down and surrendered control of the provincial armies to the Government of National Defence, which promptly ordered a cease-fire across France.

When the war began, the French government ordered a blockade of the North German coasts, which the small North German Federal Navy with only five ironclads and various minor vessels could do little to oppose.

By the time engine repairs had been completed, the French fleet had already departed. Reservists that were supposed to be at the ready in case of war, were working in the Newfoundland fisheries or in Scotland.

Only part of the ship French Navy put to sea on 24 July. A blockade of Wilhelmshaven failed and conflicting orders about operations in the Baltic Sea or a return to France, made the French naval efforts futile.

Spotting a blockade-runner became unwelcome because of the question du charbon ; pursuit of Prussian ships quickly depleted the coal reserves of the French ships.

To relieve pressure from the expected German attack into Alsace-Lorraine, Napoleon III and the French high command planned a seaborne invasion of northern Germany as soon as war began.

The French expected the invasion to divert German troops and to encourage Denmark to join in the war, with its 50,strong army and the Royal Danish Navy.

The French Navy lacked the heavy guns to engage the coastal defences and the topography of the Prussian coast made a seaborne invasion of northern Germany impossible.

A shortage of officers, following the capture of most of the professional French army at the Siege of Metz and at the Battle of Sedan, led naval officers to be sent from their ships to command hastily assembled reservists of the Garde Mobile.

The rest of the navy retired to ports along the English Channel and remained in port for the rest of the war. The quick German victory over the French stunned neutral observers, many of whom had expected a French victory and most of whom had expected a long war.

The strategic advantages which the Germans had were not appreciated outside Germany until after hostilities had ceased.

Other countries quickly discerned the advantages given to the Germans by their military system, and adopted many of their innovations, particularly the General Staff, universal conscription, and highly detailed mobilization systems.

The Prussian General Staff developed by Moltke proved to be extremely effective, in contrast to the traditional French school.

This was in large part because the Prussian General Staff was created to study previous Prussian operations and learn to avoid mistakes.

The structure also greatly strengthened Moltke's ability to control large formations spread out over significant distances.

This disorganization hampered the French commanders' ability to exercise control of their forces.

In addition, the Prussian military education system was superior to the French model; Prussian staff officers were trained to exhibit initiative and independent thinking.

Indeed, this was Moltke's expectation. According to the military historian Dallas Irvine, the system "was almost completely effective in excluding the army's brain power from the staff and high command.

To the resulting lack of intelligence at the top can be ascribed all the inexcusable defects of French military policy.

Albrecht von Roon , the Prussian Minister of War from to , put into effect a series of reforms of the Prussian military system in the s.

Among these were two major reforms that substantially increased the military power of Germany. The first was a reorganization of the army that integrated the regular army and the Landwehr reserves.

At the start of the Franco-Prussian War, , German soldiers concentrated on the French frontier while only , French soldiers could be moved to face them, the French army having lost , stragglers before a shot was fired, through poor planning and administration.

Each Prussian Corps was based within a Kreis literally "circle" around the chief city in an area. Reservists rarely lived more than a day's travel from their regiment's depot.

By contrast, French regiments generally served far from their depots, which in turn were not in the areas of France from which their soldiers were drawn.

Reservists often faced several days' journey to report to their depots, and then another long journey to join their regiments.

Large numbers of reservists choked railway stations, vainly seeking rations and orders. The effect of these differences was accentuated by the peacetime preparations.

The Prussian General Staff had drawn up minutely detailed mobilization plans using the railway system, which in turn had been partly laid out in response to recommendations of a Railway Section within the General Staff.

The French railway system, with competing companies, had developed purely from commercial pressures and many journeys to the front in Alsace and Lorraine involved long diversions and frequent changes between trains.

There was no system of military control of the railways and officers simply commandeered trains as they saw fit. Rail sidings and marshalling yards became choked with loaded wagons, with nobody responsible for unloading them or directing them to the destination.

Although Austria-Hungary and Denmark had both wished to avenge their recent military defeats against Prussia, they chose not to intervene in the war due to a lack of confidence in the French.

Napoleon III also failed to cultivate alliances with the Russian Empire and the United Kingdom , partially due to the diplomatic efforts of the Prussian chancellor Otto von Bismarck, and thus faced the German states alone.

Worse still, once the small number of soldiers who had been trained how to use the new weapon became casualties, there were no replacements who knew how to operate the mitrailleuse.

The French were equipped with bronze, rifled muzzle-loading artillery, while the Prussians used new steel breech-loading guns, which had a far longer range and a faster rate of fire.

The Prussian guns typically opened fire at a range of 2—3 kilometres 1. The Prussian batteries could thus destroy French artillery with impunity, before being moved forward to directly support infantry attacks.

The events of the Franco-Prussian War had great influence on military thinking over the next forty years. Lessons drawn from the war included the need for a general staff system, the scale and duration of future wars and the tactical use of artillery and cavalry.

The bold use of artillery by the Prussians, to silence French guns at long range and then to directly support infantry attacks at close range, proved to be superior to the defensive doctrine employed by French gunners.

The Prussian tactics were adopted by European armies by , exemplified in the French 75 , an artillery piece optimised to provide direct fire support to advancing infantry.

Most European armies ignored the evidence of the Russo-Japanese War of — which suggested that infantry armed with new smokeless-powder rifles could engage gun crews effectively.

This forced gunners to fire at longer range using indirect fire , usually from a position of cover.

The attack was a costly success and came to be known as "von Bredow's Death Ride", but which nevertheless was held to prove that cavalry charges could still prevail on the battlefield.

Use of traditional cavalry on the battlefields of proved to be disastrous, due to accurate, long-range rifle fire, machine-guns and artillery.

The Germans deployed a total of 33, officers and 1,, men into France, of which they lost 1, officers and 16, enlisted men killed in action.

Another officers and 10, men died of their wounds, for total battle deaths of 28, Disease killed officers and 11, men, with typhoid accounting for 6, Among the missing and captured were officers and 10, men.

The wounded amounted to 3, officers and 86, men. French battle deaths were 77,, of which 41, were killed in action and 36, died of wounds.

More than 45, died of sickness. Total deaths were ,, with , being suffered by the army and 2, by the navy. The wounded totaled ,; , for the army and 6, for the navy.

French prisoners of war numbered , In addition, 90, French soldiers were interned in Switzerland and 6, in Belgium. The Prussian Army, under the terms of the armistice, held a brief victory parade in Paris on 17 February; the city was silent and draped with black and the Germans quickly withdrew.

Bismarck honoured the armistice, by allowing train loads of food into Paris and withdrawing Prussian forces to the east of the city, prior to a full withdrawal once France agreed to pay a five billion franc war indemnity.

An exodus occurred from Paris as some , people, predominantly middle-class, went to the countryside. During the war, the Paris National Guard , particularly in the working-class neighbourhoods of Paris, had become highly politicised and units elected officers; many refused to wear uniforms or obey commands from the national government.

National guard units tried to seize power in Paris on 31 October and 22 January On 18 March , when the regular army tried to remove cannons from an artillery park on Montmartre , National Guard units resisted and killed two army generals.

The national government and regular army forces retreated to Versailles and a revolutionary government was proclaimed in Paris.

A commune was elected, which was dominated by socialists, anarchists and revolutionaries. The red flag replaced the French tricolour and a civil war began between the Commune and the regular army, which attacked and recaptured Paris from 21—28 May in the Semaine Sanglante bloody week.

During the fighting, the Communards killed around people, including Georges Darboy , the Archbishop of Paris , and burned down many government buildings, including the Tuileries Palace and the Hotel de Ville.

Forced labour for life was imposed on people, 1, people were transported to "a fortified place" and 3, people were transported.

About 20, Communards were held in prison hulks until released in and a great many Communards fled abroad to Britain, Switzerland, Belgium or the United States.

The survivors were amnestied by a bill introduced by Gambetta in and allowed to return. The creation of a unified German Empire aside from Austria greatly disturbed the balance of power that had been created with the Congress of Vienna after the end of the Napoleonic Wars.

Germany had established itself as a major power in continental Europe, boasting the most powerful and professional army in the world.

The defeat in the Franco-Prussian War led to the birth of Revanchism literally, "revenge-ism" in France, characterised by a deep sense of bitterness, hatred and demand for revenge against Germany.

This was particularly manifested in the desire for another war with Germany in order to reclaim Alsace and Lorraine. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

France and Prussia. Franco-Prussian War. Quentin Pontarlier Belgian reaction Paris Commune. Main article: Causes of the Franco-Prussian War.

For the organization of the two armies at the beginning of the war, see Franco-Prussian War order of battle.

Main article: Battle of Wissembourg Main article: Battle of Spicheren. Main article: Battle of Wörth. Main article: Battle of Mars-La-Tour.

This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.

Main article: Battle of Gravelotte. Main article: Siege of Metz Main article: Battle of Sedan.

Main article: Siege of Paris — Main article: Armistice of Versailles. See also: Paris Commune.

Further information: Unification of Germany. A further , officers and men were mobilized and stayed in Germany.. Ascoli, David Edinburgh: Birlinn.

Field Artillery and Firepower Revised and expanded ed. Annapolis: Naval Institute Press. The Siege of Paris. London: London New English Library.

The Franco-Prussian War — For the Soul of France: Culture wars in the age of Dreyfus. New York: Knopf. Jefferson, NC: McFarland.

Germany: — Oxford: Oxford University Press. Gravelotte-St-Privat Oxford: Osprey Publishing. Cambridge: CUP. Translated by Clarke, F.

The Fall of Paris; The siege and the Commune — London: Macmillan. London: Rupert Hart-Davis. New York: Routledge.

London: William Mackenzie. New York: Random House. The Art of War: Waterloo to Mons. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. Paris: Perrin.

Paris: E. Plon, Nourrit et Cie. Cassell's History of the war between France and Germany, — Minneapolis: MBI Pub. London: Methuen. New York: Viking Press.

Paris: Gallimard. La Commune de Paris: Presses Universitaires de France. Translated by Needham, John Layland. Edinburgh: Blackwood.

French Army —71 Franco-Prussian War. Illustrated by Richard and Christa Hook. Naval Warfare, — London: Routledge. Bismarck: The Man and the Statesman.

London: Hamish Hamilton. Supplying War: Logistics from Wallenstein to Patton 1st ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

In Macleod, Jenny ed. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. Translated by Butler, Arthur John. Conversations with Prince Bismarck.

Translated by Whitman, Sidney English ed. The Franco-German War, — Translated by Maurice, J. London: S. Sonnenschein and Co. Warfare and Society in Europe, — Chief of Staff.

Military Affairs. VI 3 : — The Journal of the American Military Foundation. Metropolitan Museum Journal. The Walters Art Museum.

Retrieved 18 May Arand, Tobias Hamburg: Osburg Verlag GmbH. Paris: Armand Colin. Baumont, Maurice Histoire de France Hachette.

Bresler, Fenton Bucholz, Arden Moltke and the German wars, — Basingstoke: Palgrave. Clark, Christopher M. De Cesare, Raffaele The Last Days of Papal Rome — Translated by Zimmern, Helen.

Fontane, Theodor []. Der Krieg gegen Frankreich — in German. Bad Langensalza: Rockstuhl. Helmert, Heinz; Usczeck, Hansjürgen Preussischdeutsche Kriege von bis Militärischer Verlauf.

Kleine Militärgeschichte. Berlin: Deutscher Militärverlag. Jerrold, William Blanchard Kropotkin, Pyotr Alexeyevich The Commune of Paris.

Freedom Pamphlets. London: New Fellowship Press. Lowe, William J. London: Chapter Two. Lowe, John McCabe, James D.

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